Definition: An economic activity refers to any human effort that is aimed at producing, distributing, or consuming goods or services. Economic activities can be undertaken by individuals, households, businesses, or governments, and they are essential for the creation and distribution of wealth in any society.

Refugee communities are groups of people who have been forced to flee their homes due to conflict, persecution, or other forms of violence. They seek safety and protection in another country, where they are recognized as refugees and granted asylum. Refugees often face significant challenges, including poverty, discrimination, and limited access to education and healthcare.

Uganda has a long history of hosting refugees, with the country providing a safe haven for those fleeing conflict and persecution in neighboring countries. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), as of March 2021, Uganda was hosting over 1.4 million refugees, including more than 860,000 children, making it the largest refugee-hosting country in Africa and the third-largest in the world after Turkey and Pakistan.

The majority of refugees in Uganda come from neighboring countries such as South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi, and Somalia. Many have fled due to ongoing conflicts and violence in their home countries, while others have been forced to flee due to persecution and human rights abuses.

 Uganda has been praised for its progressive refugee policies, which include allowing refugees to work and move freely within the country, as well as access to education and healthcare. However, hosting such a large number of refugees also presents significant challenges for the Ugandan government, including providing adequate shelter, food, and other basic needs for the refugees. The government of Uganda has been praised for its progressive policies towards refugees, which include providing refugees with the right to work, freedom of movement, access to education and healthcare, and the ability to own property. These policies are enshrined in the Refugee Act of 2006, which is considered to be one of the most progressive refugee laws in the world.

In addition to these policies, the Ugandan government works closely with international organizations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other humanitarian agencies to provide basic needs such as shelter, food, and water to refugees. However, despite these efforts, there are still many challenges faced by refugees in Uganda. Some of these challenges include:

Overcrowding: With over 1.4 million refugees in Uganda, there is a significant strain on resources, resulting in overcrowding in refugee settlements.

Limited access to healthcare: While refugees have access to healthcare, the quality and availability of healthcare services in refugee settlements are often limited.

Education: Although refugees have the right to access education, there are often not enough schools or teachers to meet the demand, resulting in a lack of education opportunities for many refugees.

Security: Refugees are often vulnerable to violence and crime, particularly women and children who are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence.

Limited economic opportunities: While refugees have the right to work in Uganda, there are often not enough job opportunities to meet the demand, resulting in high levels of poverty and unemployment among refugees.

Being diverse communities that include people from different backgrounds, cultures, and experiences. They may have unique needs and face specific challenges related to their displacement. Supporting the economic activities of refugee communities is crucial to their success and integration into their new environment.

Refugee communities often face numerous challenges when it comes to economic activities due to factors such as language barriers, limited access to capital, and legal restrictions.

Economic activities in refugee communities tend to fall into a few broad categories i.e. informal and small scale entrepreneurship, wage labor, Aid and humanitarian,

Here are some economic activities that can be suitable for refugee communities:

  1. Agriculture and Farming: Through the government’s initiative of providing refugees with an average of 3 acres per family, which can be used for farming and other purposes. This land allocation allows refugees to grow crops to feed their families and sell any surplus at local markets, providing them with a source of income and improving their overall livelihoods. Some of the crops grown in refugee settlements include maize, vegetables, fruits, beans, cassava and sweet potatoes.
  2. Handicrafts and artisanal products: Many refugee communities have skills in producing traditional handicrafts, such as weaving, pottery, and basket making. These products can be sold locally or online.
  3. Small businesses: Small businesses such as food stalls, small shops, or services like tailoring, hairdressing or cleaning, can be started with little capital, and can provide a valuable source of income.
  4. Training and education: Refugee communities may have members with skills and knowledge in different fields. They can provide training and education programs, both formal and informal, to teach new skills to fellow refugees, and the wider community.


Therefore, to ensure that refugee communities in Uganda can become more sustainable and live harmoniously with the host communities, here are some key recommendations that can be made:

  1. Encourage greater integration: Encouraging greater integration between refugees and host communities can help to build social cohesion and reduce tensions. This can be achieved through programs such as language classes, cultural exchange programs, and joint community projects.
  2. Promote sustainable agriculture: Promoting sustainable agriculture practices, such as agroforestry and crop rotation, can help to ensure that refugee communities have a reliable source of food and income while also protecting the environment.
  3. Support entrepreneurship: Supporting entrepreneurship among refugees can help to create new economic opportunities and reduce dependency on aid. This can be achieved through programs that provide training and support for small businesses.
  4. Improve access to education: Improving access to education for refugee children can help to break the cycle of poverty and improve their future prospects. This can be achieved through programs that provide funding for schools and teacher training.
  5. Provide psychosocial support: Providing psychosocial support for refugees can help to address trauma and mental health issues, which are often prevalent in refugee communities. This can be achieved through programs that provide counseling and mental health services.

Overall, by implementing these recommendations, it is possible to create a more sustainable and harmonious environment for refugee communities in Uganda. By providing refugees with the tools and resources they need to build a better future for themselves and their families, we can help to create a more inclusive and equitable society for all.